The city of Nippur was continuously occupied from the Sumerian period up through the first millennium A.D. It was an important economic center during the Persian period from which the Murashu archive dates. It was excavated during the years 1888 through 1900 by the American archaeologist John Henry Haynes. The Americans were forced to build a fortress on the top of the mound to protect themselves against the warring Shiite moslem tribesmen that threatened their excavations throughout the expedition. An ancient map dating from 1300 B.C. indicates that the home built centuries later by the Murashu clan may have sat atop a hill overlooking the Inanna temple acropolis. Like the financial district of second millennium Ur, the Murashu home lay on the opposite side of the main canal that ran through the city.